The 11 Body Systems and Their Normal Functions

The Lymphatic System consists of tissues and organs made up of lymph vessels, lymph nodes and lymph. The tonsils, adenoids, spleen and thymus make up the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is primarily responsible for transporting lymph which contains white blood cells to help rid the body of waste. Lymphedema is a real life example of what can happen when the lymphatic system does not work properly.

The Nervous System is made up of two major components: the central nervous system which consists of the brain and the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system , which also has two main components: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system . The central nervous system controls the functions within the body and the mind. The brain receives information and communicates with the body through the spinal cord and the nerves. The somatic nervous system transmits sensory information to the central nervous system and connects the motor nerve fibers that connect to the skeletal muscles. The autonomic nervous system controls the work of our internal organs such as the heart, stomach, and intestines. The functions of the autonomic nervous system work without any conscious awareness. A stroke is an example of what can happen when the nervous system does not work properly.

The Endocrine System consists of eight major glands. These glands are groups of cells that emit hormones to regulate our body’s metabolism, growth and development, and functions such as tissue function, sexual function, and our sleep and mood functions. The endocrine system works similar to the nervous system by sending signals throughout the body, but the body’s responses to the endocrine system signals can take hours or weeks to respond, unlike the nervous system’s immediate response to signals. Diabetes is a result of a real life experience that can happen when the endocrine system does not work properly.

The Cardiovascular System is made up of three independent systems which work together: the heart (cardiovascular), the lungs (pulmonary), and the arteries, veins, and coronary and portal vessels. The cardiovascular system is responsible for the flow of blood, nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to and from cells. The cardiovascular system functions to assist the body in fighting diseases and maintaining an even, inner environment, known as homeostasis. An aortic aneurysm is an example of a real life experience that can happen when the cardiovascular system does not function properly.

The Respiratory System consists of the nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs, including bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli, and the respiratory muscles. The main organs of the respiratory system are the lungs. The lungs take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide from the body. Red blood cells in our body collect oxygen from our lungs and deliver the oxygen to the parts of the body where it is needed. Throughout this process, the red blood cells gather carbon monoxide which is released from the body when we exhale. Asthma is a real life experience of what can happen when the respiratory system does not work properly.

The Reproductive System is a group of organs which work collectively for the sole purpose of creating a new life. The two major components of the male reproductive system are the testes and the penis. The major components of the female reproductive system are the vagina and uterus, and the ovaries. Infertility is a real life example of what can happen when the reproductive system does not work properly.

The Urinary System is made up of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, and sphincter muscles. The urinary system works in conjunction with the lungs, skin, and intestines in order to balance the chemicals and water within the body. The kidneys work to remove urea from the blood through filtering units called nephrons. Urea is a waste product caused by the breakdown of proteins in the body.  The water in the body along with other waste matter and urea form urine as they pass through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidneys. Kidney failure is a real life experience that can happen when the urinary system does not work properly.

The Digestive System is made up of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, the rectum and anus, and the accessory organs: teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, and the pancreas. The function of the digestive system is to convert food into vital nutrients which are absorbed into the body and get rid of the unused waste in the body. Digestion starts with chewing. Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a real life experience that can happen when the digestive system does not work properly.

The Integumentary System is made up of the skin, hair, and nails. The skin is the body’s largest organ. The Integumentary system works to protect the body from infection. It also releases wastes, regulates temperature in the body, and controls perspiration within the body which prevents dehydration. The Integumentary system is also made up of sensory receptors which sense pain, feeling, and pressure. The skin is the body’s first defense against bacteria and diseases. Skin and hair work to protect the body from damaging ultraviolet radiation. Malignant Melanoma is a real life experience resulting in the Integumentary system not working properly.

The Muscular System consists of three types of muscles: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Skeletal muscles are voluntary and allow the body to move. Smooth muscles are found in the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels. The smooth muscles transmit signals to move substances through these organs, controlled by the unconscious part of the brain and is not controlled by the conscious mind. The cardiac muscles work by pumping blood throughout the body. Cerebral Palsy is a real life example of what can happen when the muscular system does not work properly.

The Skeletal System is the bony framework of the body. The skeletal system protects and supports the body’s organs and provides muscle attachment for movement. It also produces blood cells and stores calcium. Scoliosis is a real life example of what can happen when the skeletal system does not work properly.

References

Zimmermann, K. A. (2013, February). Lymphatic system: Facts, functions & diseases. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/26983-lymphatic-system.html

Zimmermann, K. A. (2012, August). Nervous system: Facts, functions & diseases. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/22665-nervous-system.html

Zimmermann, K. A. (2013, January). Endocrine system: Facts, functions & diseases. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/26496-endocrine-system.html

Zimmermann, K. A. (2012, August). Circulatory system: Facts, functions & diseases. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/22486-circulatory-system.html

Zimmermann, K. A. (2012, August). Respiratory system: Facts, functions & diseases. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/22616-respiratory-system.html

Zimmermann, K. A. (2013, January). Reproductive system: Facts, functions & diseases. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/26741-reproductive-system.html

Zimmermann, K. A. (2013, February). Urinary system: Facts, functions & diseases. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/27012-urinary-system.html

Zimmermann, K. A. (2012, August). Digestive system: Facts, functions & diseases. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/22367-digestive-system.html

Zimmermann, K. A. (2013, February). Skin: Facts, functions & diseases. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/27115-skin-facts-diseases-conditions.html

Zimmermann, K. A. (2013, February). Muscular system: Facts, functions & diseases. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/26854-muscular-system-facts-functions-diseases.html

Zimmermann, K. A. (2012, August). Skeletal system: Facts, functions & diseases. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/22537-skeletal-system.htm

 

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